MLA and Works Cited

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Books and Reference Books

This list is based on the 7th. ed. of the MLA Handbook to provide examples for the most basic types of citations. Because there are so many possible variations, please refer to the handbook for a more exhaustive list of examples. MLA-Handbook for Writers of Research Papers 7th. ed.

Parenthetical Documentation [MLA 6]
All sources cited in the text should be listed in the Works Cited.

The author’s name may be included in the text and only the page numbers in parentheses. “As Allison asserts (97), the....” Many instructors prefer this method.

Alternatively, use the first part of your citation for parenthetical documentation. Usually, that will be the author or authors’ last names. Follow with the page number. (Brown and Proper 17).

Use as little information as possible while making a unique identification. If there are two books by the same author, you must include part of the title. (Allison, Whatever 97).

When you are quoting person A in who was quoted in person B’s essay, your parenthetical reference should acknowledge that: Allison believes such and such (qtd. in Brown and Proper 256).

If you have no page numbers, it usually flows better to include an indirect reference in the text. “According to Allison, the...”

Print Sources
Example with appropriate spacing. Be sure there is only one space after punctuation.

Author. “Title of Article.” Book Title. Editor. Edition. Volume.
Place of Publication: Publisher, Date. Pages. Medium of Publication.

Book with One Author [MLA 5.5.2]
Hoover, John. Time Management: Set Priorities to Get the Right Things Done. New Yoyr: Collins, 2001. Print.

Two or Three Authors [MLA 5.5.4]
Brown, Nathan, and Sheryle A. Proper. The Everything Paying for College Book. Avon: Adams, 2005. Print.

Four or More Authors [MLA 5.5.4]
Bassis, Michael S., et al. Sociology: An Introduction. 4th ed. New York: McGraw, 1991. Print.

No Author [MLA 5.5.9]
(Note: Begin with the title if a source has no author.)

The House Book. London: Phaidon, 2001. Print.

An Editor [MLA 5.5.10]
Vecchione, Patrice, ed. Faith and Doubt: An Anthology of Poems. New York: Holt, 2007. Print.

Corporate Author [MLA 5.5.5]
American Heart Assn. American Heart Association Low-Salt Cookbook. New York: Clarkson Potter, 2006. Print.

An Editor in Addition to an Author [MLA 5.5.10]
Chaucer, Geoffrey. The Works of Geoffrey Chaucer. Ed. F. W. Robinson. Boston: Houghton, 1957. Print.

A Work in an Anthology [MLA 5.5.6]
Chan, Janet. “Changing Police Culture.” Policing: Key Readings. Ed. Tim Newburn. Cullompton: Willan, 2005. 338-63. Print.

A Work in an Anthology: Reprint of a Previously Published Scholarly Article [MLA 5.5.6]
(Note: List first the information about where the essay was originally published. When reprinted multiple times, use only the original source and the source where you found the material.)

Ball, John Clement. “An Interview with Salman Rushdie.” Toronto South Asian Review 10.1 (1991): 30-37. Rpt. in Conversations with Salman Rushdie. Ed. Michael Reder. Jackson: UP of Mississippi, 1994. 101-09. Print.

A Work in an Anthology: Excerpt [MLA 5.5.6]
(Note: Includes Contemporary Literary Criticism, Twentieth-Century Literary Criticism, etc.)

Monteiro, George. “For the Record: Text and Picture in ‘The Open Boat’.” Journal of Modern Literature 11.2 (1984): 307-11. Excerpt from Short Stories for Students. Ed. Kathleen Wilson and Marie Lazzari. Vol. 4. Detroit: Gale, 1998. 210-13. Print.

A Book Published in a Second or Subsequent Edition [MLA 5.5.13]
MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. 7th ed. New York: MLA, 2009. Print.

An Article in a Reference Book: Specialized Work [MLA 5.5.7]
“Stepmothers.” The Greenwood Encyclopedia of Folktales and Fairy Tales. Ed. Donald Haase. Vol. 3. Westport: Greenwood, 2008. Print.

An Article in a Reference Book: Introduction, Foreword, Preface or Afterword [MLA 5.5.8]
“Immanuel Kant.” Introduction. Nineteenth Century Literature Criticism. Ed. Denise Evans. Vol. 67. Detroit: Gale,1998. Print.

An Article in a Reference Book: Encyclopedia Article, Signed [MLA 5.5.7]
Epps, Helen H. “Textiles.” World Book Encyclopedia. 2003 ed. Print.

An Article in a Reference Book: Dictionary or Encyclopedia Article, Unsigned [MLA 5.5.7]
“Onomatopoeia.” Entry 1. Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary. 11th ed. 2003. Print.

Book in a Series [MLA 5.5.15]
(Note: This includes Information Plus, Opposing Viewpoints, and Contemporary World Issues.)

Watkins, Christine, ed. Sports and Athletes. Detroit: Greenhaven, 2009. Print. Opposing Viewpoints Ser.

Two or More Works by Different Authors from the Same Anthology [MLA 5.5.6 and 5.3.6]
(Note: Make a complete entry for the anthology and briefer entries for each essay)

Gunn, James, Marlene S. Barr, and Matthew Candelaria, eds. Reading Science Fiction. New York: Palgrave MacMillan, 2009. Print.

Freedman, Carl. “Marxism and Science Fiction.” Gunn, Barr, and Candelaria 120-32.

Sargent, Pamela. “Science Fiction and Biology.” Gunn, Barr, and Candelaria 219-26.

Government Publication [MLA 5.5.20]
(Note: Use the name of the government, then the name of the agency as the document author unless a specificindividual author is given.)

United States Cong. Office of Technology Assessment. Changing by Degrees: Steps to Reduce Greenhouse Gases. Washington: GPO, 1991. Print.

Example with appropriate spacing. This is a scholarly journal in a database. Other periodicals may require different information as shown in the examples below.

Author. “Article Title.” Journal Title Volume.Issue (Year): pages. Database.

Medium of Publication. Access date.

Newspapers and Magazines

Article from a Weekly Magazine and Weekly News Service [MLA 5.4.6]
(Note: This includes CQ Researcher or Issues and Controversies on File.)

Kluger, Jeffrey. “Why We Love.” Time 28 Jan. 2008: 55-60. Print.

Article from a Monthly Magazine [MLA 5.4.6]
Hitchens, Christopher. “A Breath of Dust.” Atlantic Monthly July-Aug. 2005: 142-46. Print.

Newspaper Article [MLA 5.4.5]
Feder, Barnaby J. “For Job Seekers, a Toll-Free Gift of Expert Advice.” New York Times 22 Mar. 1994, late ed.: A1+. Print.

Article in a Scholarly Journal [MLA 5.4.2]
Warner, Megan B., et al. “The Longitudinal Relationship of Personality Traits and Disorders.” Journal of Abnormal Psychology 113.2 (2004): 217-27. Print.

Anonymous Article “Marion Barry and the Washington Post.” The Weekly Standard 26 Nov. 2007: 2-3. Print.

Online Databases

Scholarly Journal in an Online Database [MLA 5.6.4]
Massaro, John. “Press Box Propoganda? The Cold War and Sports Illustrated 1956.” Journal of American Culture 26.3 (2003): 361-70. Academic Search Complete. Web. 23 Jan. 2008.

Weekly or Biweekly Magazine in an Online Database [MLA 5.6.4]
Clemmitt, Marcia. “Student Aid.” CQ Researcher 25 Jan. 2008: 73-96. CQ Researcher Online. Web. 2 Feb. 2008.

Newspaper in an Online Database [MLA 5.6.4]
Lieber, Ron. “In China, G.M. Stands as a Powerful Player.” New York Times 22 Apr. 2009, late ed. (East Coast): B1. ProQuest Newspapers. Web. 8 June 2009.

Book Article in an Online Database [MLA 5.6.4 and 5.5.7]
Hardy, Sarah Madson. “Recitatif.” Short Stories for Students. Gale Group, 1999. N. pag. Literature Resource Center. Web. 29 Apr. 2008.

E-Books [MLA 5.6.2c]
Sweet, William. Kicking the Carbon Habit: Global Warming and the Case for Renewable and Nuclear Energy. New York: Columbia UP, 2006. NetLibrary. Web. 14 Sept. 2007.

Media and Interviews

Personal Interview [MLA 5.7.7]
Persson, Katherine. Personal interview. 11 Aug. 2009.

Film or Video Recording [MLA 5.7.3]
(Note: Start with the information you want to emphasize - title, performer, director or author.)

Patton. Dir. Franklin J. Schaffner. Perf. George C. Scott. 1970. 20th Century Fox, 2006. DVD.

Scott, George C., Perf. Patton. Dir. Franklin J. Schaffner. 1970. 20th Century Fox, 2006. DVD.

Sound Recording [MLA 5.7.2]
Streep, Meryl. “The Winner Takes It All.” By Benny Anderson and Björn Ulvaeus.

Mamma Mia! The Movie Sound Track Featuring the Songs of Abba. Decca, 2008. CD.

Sound Recording. Liner Notes [MLA 5.7.2]
Anderson, Benny. Liner Notes. Mamma Mia! The Movie Sound Track Featuring the Songs of Abba. Decca, 2008. CD.

Visual Art. In a Museum. [MLA 5.7.6]
Exekias. The Suicide of Ajax. c. 540 BCE. Ceramic. Chateâu-Musée, Boulogne-sur-Mer.

Visual Art. In a Book. [MLA 5.7.6]
Exekias. The Suicide of Ajax. c. 540 BCE. Chateâu-Musée, Boulogne-sur-Mer. Art History. By Marilyn Stokstad. New York: Abrams, 1995. Plate 5-29. Print.


Author. “Title of Article.” Web Site. Editor. Site Publisher or N.p., Date of Publication or n.d. Medium of Publication (Web). Date of access.

Basic Entry [MLA 5.6.2b]
Sutton, Bettye, et al. “1800-1810.” 19th Century Cultural History. Lone Star College- Kingwood Library, 2003. Web. 28 July 2007.

Work Cited only on the Web, with URL [MLA 5.6.1]
Lye, John. “Some Notes on Realism.” Dept. of English Language and Literature, Brock U. 22 Apr. 2008. Web. 25 Aug. 2009. /2F55/realism.php.

Author, no publication date [MLA 5.6.2b]
Mazer, Cary M. Bernard Shaw: A Brief Biography. Dept. of English, U of Pennsylvania, n.d. Web. 16 Sept. 2007.

Title, No Author [MLA 5.6.2b]
“Parenting Corner Q&A: Immunizations.” American Academy of Pediatrics. Amer. Acad. of Pediatrics, Feb. 2009. Web. 4 June 2009.

Online Periodical [MLA 5.6.2b]
Sarnoff, Nancy. “Web’s Role in House Hunt Grows.” Houston Chronicle, 1 Dec. 2007. Web. 18 Feb. 2008.

Online Government Publication [MLA 5.5.20]
(Note: This includes Occupational Outlook.)

United States. Congress. Congressional Budget Office. Nuclear Power’s Role in Generating Electricity. By Justin Robert Falk. Washington: GPO, 2008. Web. 22 May 2009.

Book Online. First Published prior to 1900 [MLA 5.6.2]
Alger, Horatio, Jr. Ragged Dick or Street Life in New York with the Boot Blacks. 1868. Google Book Search. Web. 5 May 2009.

Book Online. First Published after 1900 [MLA 5.6.2]
Eliot, T. S. Poems. New York: Knopf: 1920. Project Gutenberg. Web. 5 May 2009.

Online Video [MLA 5.6.2b]
Bradley, Becky. “The Sun Also Rises: Hemingway in Spain.” The Sun Also Rises. Lone Star College-Kingwood Library. Video. April 2007. Web. 17 Jan. 2008.

Online Video with Publication Data for Another Medium [MLA 5.6.2d]
The Great Information Exchange. 13 Feb. 2008. Freedom Museum. YouTube. Web. 2 June 2009.

NOTE: If you cannot find some of the information required, cite what is available.

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